Leporinus frederici (Bloch, ) Leporinus friderici friderici (Bloch, ) Salmo friderici Bloch, BioLib link: Leporinus friderici · FishBase. Dorsal soft rays (total): 12; Anal soft rays: Scales in lateral line 35 + circumpeduncular 16; profile over orbits flat; teeth in the upper jaw 4 + 4, the cutting. Leporinus friderici (Bloch, ) (Characiformes, Anostomidae) is a freshwater fish commonly called “piava” or “piau-três-pintas” widely.
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Parasite infracommunities of Leporinus friderici: A comparison of three tributaries of the Jurumirim Reservoir in southeastern Brazil. The degradation and homogenization of natural habitats is considered a major cause of biotic leporinud. Many studies have been undertaken on the effects of dams on aquatic wildlife, in particular fish assemblages. But how do dams affect the parasitic fauna of such fish?
The aim of the present study was to examine parasitic similarity, comparing the diversity and structure of parasite communities of Leporinus friderici Characiformes, Anostomidae in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam on the Upper Paranapanema River in southeastern Frirerici.
The present study did not find any significant differences in parasite communities among populations of L. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms between localities, frirerici therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities.
Overall, the results suggest that fish parasite assemblages can provide suitable data for evaluating biotic homogenization caused by dams. Neotropical region; Leporinus friderici; metazoan parasites; similarity; watershed conservation. Unfortunately, with increasing worldwide demand for water and electricity, dam construction is inevitable and results in simplified natural landscapes, homogenizing the regional distinctiveness of natural disturbance dynamics RahelOlden et al.
This anthropogenic activity can be considered the more extensive alteration in riverine ecosystems Nilsson et al. Biotic homogenization is the increased similarity of biotas over time that integrates many aspects of the biodiversity crisis such as species introduction, extirpation, and habitat alteration Mckinney and Lockwood Dam interventions leads to the decline of many species that are replaced by a much smaller number of expanding species that friderjci in environments altered by humans Olden and RooneyRahel Endemic species are replaced by cosmopolitan species with the result that entire ecosystems come to resemble each other RahelScott Dams are classic examples of human interventions in friserici flow regimes that cause changes in the leporijus of freshwater organisms by reducing natural regional differences and thus imposing environmental homogeneity on a large geographic scale Poff et al.
The Lepirinus dam was built in the late s and is fridderici first of 11 cascading dams along the main course of the Paranapanema River Nogueira et al. Parasites have undergone serious changes in composition and structure due to human activity that influences the functioning and stability of the ecosystem LaffertyLafferty and Kuris Fish parasite communities may respond directly or indirectly to such changes, due to their intimate contact with both the host and the aquatic environment Kadlec et al.
Dams modify the water level fridericl and current velocity, which affects the distribution of aquatic vegetation, icthyophagous birds, and the population density of invertebrates and fish Morley Many studies have analyzed the consequences of dams for the parasite fauna of aquatic wildlife fridericj temperate regions Bauer and StolyarovDogielHolloway and HagstromMackie et al.
This study highlighted the disappearance of the digenean Prosthenhystera obesa after the establishment of a reservoir. In the studied area, the effects of the Jurumirim Dam have been well documented for phytoplankton Henry et al.
Leporinus friderici, Threespot leporinus : fisheries, aquaculture
However, no data of the effects on the fish parasite leporijus are available for this dam. Its migration is seasonal and short-distance Agostinho et al. Studies have investigated the composition of the parasite fauna of this fish in Brazilian rivers Feltran et al.
To date, most efforts to quantify faunal homogenization in freshwater ecosystems has focused on fish assemblages. However, how can dams affect the parasitic fauna of these fish? Considering the biotic homogenization effect of dams, lepirinus present study hypothesizes that the Jurumirim Dam homogenizes the parasitic fauna of L.
The aim of this paper frideroci to examine the similarity, diversity and structure patterns of parasite communities of L.
Fish parasites can have a positive role and are involved in most of the links of the food web and the flow of energy in aquatic ecosystems. Consequently, shifts in fish parasite composition in dammed rivers will change the state of productivity and sustainability of these ecosystems.
Samplings of hosts were carried out between April and June using gillnets of different mesh sizes and with standardized effort in three upstream tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim Dam: In total, specimens of L.
The collection, preservation and preparation of the parasites were conducted based on the frkderici compiled by Eiras et al.
The identification of the parasite taxa was performed using MoravecThatcherand Cohen et al. Statistical analyses were performed at community level i. Comparison of the parasitized and non-parasitized hosts among the tributaries was performed using the G test 2×3 contingency table Zar To describe the component community, the total number of species of parasite, the total number of individual parasites, the Shannon-Wiener index H’which gives equal weight to rare and abundant species, the Simpson index 1-D which is sensitive to changes in the most abundant species composition, the Pielou evenness index Jand the Berger-Parker index BPwhich evaluates uniformity among the component community were employed Magurran Statistical differences in infracommunity diversity Shannon-Wiener index among host populations from the three tributaries were tested using the Kruskal-Wallis test Zar The EstimateS program was used to estimate parasite species richness for each host population see Colwell and Coddington Component communities were compared qualitatively i.
An analysis of similarity ANOSIM using the Jaccard index qualitative and the Bray-Curtis index quantitative was performed with 10, permutations to test the null hypothesis of no difference in the composition and abundance of the parasite community of L.
Based on an assumption that the TR host population see Figure 1 is further away from the other rivers, a Mantel test with randomization runs was performed using PC-ORD 5.
This analysis was performed using Statistica software version 7. In all, 14 parasite taxa were recorded in the leporinsu population of L. Among these, Monogenea was the most diverse and prevalent taxonomic group from all the sampled areas. Eight parasite species were shared among the tributaries Table I. Most hosts were parasitized by one species Figure 2. Eight taxa were shared among the host populations, six Monogenea Dactylogyridae gen.
Spirocamallanus amarali and P. The parasite community of the host population from PR had the highest mean diversity index Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s index and, consequently, high distribution uniformity of parasite abundance Pielou index Table II.
Estimators of species richness provided roughly similar results with the observed values exhibiting a satisfactory level of sampling effort Figure 4. Similarity within component communities of host populations exhibited qualitative and quantitative homogeneity Table III.
The worldwide demand for water and power generation has dramatically increased the risks for freshwater ecosystems. Leporins this purpose, more reservoirs have been built in recent years, raising concern over biological conservation.
Dams usually affect the ecological and evolutionary processes of resident biota by modifying and replacing the function and diversity of river habitats Leporinks et al.
In addition, these impacts on landscape structure change the natural disturbance regime of the river and, are usually described as one of the major reasons for freshwater biotic homogenization Mckinney Vagility is an important host trait that influences the structure and composition of parasite communities from different locations.
In the present study we recognized that the Jurumirim Reservoir performs as a mediator, facilitating the spread of both host populations and disease. Thus, parasites can have a colonizing ability independent of the vagility of the fish host, a fact that increases similarity among communities. Therefore, the levels of parasitism observed among populations of Leporinua.
More than just controlling river flow, damning a river simplifies the freshwater ecosystems and leads to conditions which change the parasite dynamic. In response to environmental stressors, fish parasite communities can increase or lepoginus prevalence, abundance and diversity Lafferty and Kuris Bauer and Stolyarov noted a decline in the complete extirpation of many fish parasites monogeneans, trematodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and crustaceans during the establishment of a reservoir.
Dams can favor parasites with direct fridsrici where all stages are completed on a single host e. In leporinhs three studied areas, Monogenea was the most prevalent and abundant parasite. The loss of complex life-cycle parasite taxa e.
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Previous studies have identified a significant reduction in potential intermediate host communities zooplankton and benthic communitiesand thereafter a proportional decrease in fish density and diversity in the Jurumirim Reservoir Henry et al. All these are key factors which maintain parasite dynamics. A priori, similarities in parasite communities should decrease with increases in either the distinctness of the environments occupied or the geographical distance between any two host populations Poulin and MorandPoulin Quantitative differences in parasite infracommunities can indicate different host populations.
However, the present study did not find any lporinus differences in parasite communities among populations of L. This result highlights that dams promote and facilitate the dispersal of organisms among localities, and therefore the spatial homogenization of parasite communities. The leporinuw pairwise regional differences in species composition spatial turnover may represent a homogenization of parasite faunas among tributaries under the influence of the Jurumirim dam. Many dams around the world have attenuated the seasonal and interannual streamflow variability of rivers, thereby causing biotic homogenization.
These effects can diminish human wellbeing by decreasing the services that ecosystems can provide for people Millennium Ecosystem Assessment One way to reduce biotic homogenization is to minimize habitat alteration, maintaining the periodicity of the reservoir water retention time, allowing a water flow level to be re-established in the river system.
The permanently high water retention time more than days and low degree of recurrent patterns have had a clear influence on the zooplankton community in the Jurumirim Reservoir Sartori et al. While the Jurumirim Dam area of influence has monthly variations in rainfall and water levels, the hydroelectric power station is responsible for major spatial and temporal unpredictability Garcia-Mellado et al.
These events may dramatically alter the way the ecosystem behaves and are mirrored by changes in the diversity of wildlife communities and their parasite populations. Unfortunately, freshwater ecosystems are undergoing abrupt ecological changes caused by increasing dam construction. Such changes include habitat loss and fragmentation, species loss, invasions, and homogenization.
Despite these assumptions, the restoration of natural flows, removal of dams, and elimination of pollution can slow or even reverse the homogenization process RahelRahel In the United States, more than obsolete dams have been removed and rivers reconnected over the last 40 years O’Connor et al.
Studies have also found that the rivers are resilient and their fish assemblages react quickly after dam removal Hitt et al.
Following this reasoning, what would happen to fish parasite assemblages after dam removal? These results should aid river managers and stakeholders in mitigating the negative effects of dams on the biotic homogenization process. Carolsfeld J et al. EdsMigratory fishes of South America: The World Bank, Canada, p. Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical Region: Braz J Biol The fish fauna in the fish passage at the Ourinhos Dam, Paranapanema River. The formation of parasite fauna and parasitic diseases of fish in water reservoirs.
Dogiel VA et al. EdsParasitology of fishes. Oliver and Boyd, p. Acta Limnol Bras