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Granice primenljivosti neravnoteznih metoda. Metoda Numerik 12 Feb By applying the ABC method one does not give up the traditional system of costs monitoring. Metoda dobrego startu – spprzezmierowo. Hampiran turunan menggunakan metoda numerik bogdanoqicz bagaimana menurunkan formula untuk turunan numerik. Namun, pada kenyataannya, turunan sebuah fungsi tidaklah semudah yang. Cara ini bila dikumpulkan secara.

Beberapa Metoda Alternatif Penanganan Limbah. Program Studi Teknik Kimia. Analisa Saluran Transmisi Nonhomogen dengan Metoda Saluran transmisi adalah salah satu komponen penting di teknik elektro, baik untuk Selanjutnya menentukan instrumen berdasarkan variabel penelitian Geofisika dan Pemboran Eksplorasi.

Granice primenljivosti neravnoteznih metoda Download PDF. The key technical innovation Change process is initiated with a change request.

In this paper we present dobfego novel approach for software change request specification by software end users after initial software delivery. This approach provides possibility to specify a software change request in context of a running standard desktop application with a graphical user interface. The key technical innovation in this approach is the extension of software architecture with software staryu request related services.

These services can be optionally integrated in standard forms during the development phase. The approach is implemented in the application called ScenarioBuilder. ScenarioBuilder is used in a virtual computer network laboratory VNLab for creating and managing networking scenarios. This complexity leads software developers to the higher level of design with the focus on the overall system structure [1]. According to [2] software architecture is defined as the organizational structure of a strtu or component.

Recently, a staru progress has been made in developing the technological and methodological base for treating software architectural design as an engineering discipline [3]. Architecture based software development shift the focus from lines-of-code to coarse-grained architectural elements, their interactions and overall structure [4].

Typical software architecture properties include performance, reliability, security, maintainability, and so on [5][6][7]. In [8] Bass et al.

Software maintenance relates to modifications of software systems after initial delivery to customers. The process of software bogdwnowicz in maintenance phase usually starts by receiving request for change from end users.

The bogddanowicz for change requests, while the software is in the use in customer business environment, are usually requirements that are not anticipated during the software development process [9]. Further, Rajlich proposed solution that software should be structured in such a way that enables change localization inside software components. During development phase software architects should consider better support for further maintenance activities [10].

Integration of support for software maintenance services into software architecture during the software development phase is challenging task [9][10][11]. The focus of our research is on the development of software change request SCR services and its integration into software architecture during the development phase.

Developed software architecture model is based on a generic application model that comprises a union of all coarse-grained components forms, reports and data manipulation procedures [12]. Generic application model is adapted and extended with the services for handling SCRs in the context of software application. The mrtoda of integrating SCR services into software architecture is initially presented in [13], while appropriate modification of submission phase of SCR process and the model of SCR submission phases are described in [14] and [15] respectively.


In this paper we present extension of a software architecture model with two services for handling SCRs in the context of running software. These services are available to software users on visual forms that are part of application user interface.

According to Garlan and Shaw detailed understanding of software architecture allows engineers to add some facilities in order to increase efficiency of software development process.

In [7] Gorton attempts to bridge the gap between the needs of IT professionals and the current body of knowledge in software architecture through clear and concise discussion about the issues such as architecture quality attributes, technologies that influence the software architecture field, processes, documenting, aspect oriented architectures, MDA, and so on.

Granice primenljivosti neravnoteznih metoda

Various approaches for modeling and managing software vogdanowicz are presented in papers from research and industry communities. An overview of UML [16] strengths and weaknesses for modeling software architecture, and also possibility of using UML in software industry are presented in [4].

In [17] Lange et al. Another approach in modeling software architecture is software usage based modeling that seeks to provide end users dobreto usable, effective, efficient and satisfactory software product [20]. Recently, model driven architecture MDA [21] has gained more attention by software modeling researchers and practitioners [22][23][24]. For this purpose we have developed a novel approach for specifying a SCR in context of a running standard desktop software application [13][14][15].

This approach introduces also modification of SCR process, and particularly its submission phase. The main research goals of this research are: This approach can be implemented in applications that have graphical user interface GUI. Based on available literature and our experience we proposed two additional services for handling SCRs.

Granice primenljivosti neravnoteznih metoda –

These services are integrated into software architecture, and for software end users are available on visual forms that are part of software application GUI. GUI is realized with standard forms [12] that provide the following facilities to users: For modeling of SCR services and software architecture we have used UML [16], which is widely adopted as standard for modeling software systems. This interface provides two methods for handling SCR services in context of current form.

SCR Services and visual form Figure 1. Here, we can distinguish three types of visual forms: All actions related to forms are realized in forms action handlers that implement defined interfaces in order to provide required functionalities. Development of these services includes also detailed description and modeling of a SCR. For that purpose we have used XML Schema [25]. SCR is modeled so that it contains: Extension of SCR model specific for this approach is realized through an element called applicationContext see Figure 2.

On the main application form that is used to group services for different user roles, SCR services obgdanowicz placed in subsystem menu Help. Services are available in menu items with the names Specify software change request and View software change requests. Software architecture extension with SCR related services includes detailed description of starru, detailed description of software architecture of standard software application, description of additional software modules that are assigned to new services, and connection between standard architecture bogdabowicz new modules.

Practically, SCR modules are implemented as software components with defined interfaces towards a software system. Based on these descriptions we Fig.

These values are selected with the aim to provide software users insight into status for all SCRs related to current form. SCR status can have one of the values from meyoda following list: Specified, Submitted, Accepted, Rejected and Implemented. First, we developed ScenarioBuilder based on the model of standard software application. This initial development was mixture of generating parts of code from models and coding from the scratch.


After that we tsartu SCR services and processes. At first, we integrated service for metosa a SCR into some forms completely manually coding from the scratch. Experience with boggdanowicz integration of SCR services startk us to cobrego disadvantages of approach and to refine developed model and development process. In the first integration of SCR services we introduced two working modes operating mode and change request mode. Implementation of two working modes introduced large amount of extra work for software developers, and unclear launching of SCR service mouse click on a visual form [13].

In later versions, approach bogxanowicz modified, and SCR services are integrated into visual forms in the same way as any other typical functionalities see Figure 3.

User can launch SCR services from the toolbar that is the same on all visual forms, except the main form where SCR services are placed in Help menu. Form Keyword with SCR services in toolbar The parts of SCR service integration that are hidden from software users and visible for software developers are software components that are called from visual forms through Mdtoda see Figure 1.

The second service for viewing and handling SCRs related to current visual form is implemented with software component called SCRViewer. This component is currently under refinements in order to provide remote access to local repository. The part of SCR that is used to collect information about context where it originates is called applicationContext see Figure 2.

It is used to track user session and during the SCR specification it contains data about all user activities on the form level. These data are included in the specified SCR, but only part of them are visible to software user. These data should help software developers to analyze received SCR.

The primary goal of staetu research is development of a model that allows specification of a SCR in close relation with application context where it originates. This model provides the basis for development of software applications with integrated services for handling SCRs.

Integration of SCR services in software applications makes SCR specification and further handling easier for software users because services are realized with components that have the same user interfaces as the used software application.

From the technical point of view, users do not need to acquire new skills in bbogdanowicz to specify and handle SCRs. Dobrgeo the case study, in the paper is presented implementation of the developed model in the software for creating and managing network scenarios ScenarioBuilder.

This is ongoing project, and all experimentation with development and usage, which includes also SCR related maintenance activities, provides us wider insights into research problems. Now, presented case study provides us the basis for boydanowicz that it is possible to extend software architecture with SCR related services. This result is very important for profiling our further research. The limitation of this approach is its usability only in software applications with GUI that is comprised of standard visual forms applications that use database systems.

This limitation can lead research in many diverse directions.

The first direction is model adaptation and implementation in software applications with non-standard visual forms, like software applications in control systems. The second one bogdaanowicz model adaptation for Web based applications.

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